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Origin of the diamond

From carbon to diamond.

The word diamond has its origin in the Greek word adamas – meaning unconquerable.
Diamond is the hardest material in the world and it consists of the most common building blocks in the world – carbon. Atoms of carbon form stable bonds in a three-dimensional crystalline structure. Crystallization is the process which occurs in extreme conditions when the pressures is up to exceed 70, 000 kg/cm3 and the temperatures are higher than over 13 000 C.

These conditions are only found in the depths of more than 100 – 200 kilometers under the Earth’s surface.

Diamond is able to travel through the earth’s crust to the surface by being when pushed up by with volcanic rock. There are two types of this rock: lamproit and kimberlite. Both types have nearly the same composition.

The primary places where the diamonds are found are deposits of a magmatic origin, so-called primary deposits where diamonds are scattered as accessory minerals in very dark rocks in the upper earth mantel. These rocks are called kimberlite (named after Kimberley, town in South Africa).